Forestry

(NEW!) 2013 Forestry Resources

(NEW!) 2013 Forestry Equipment Techniques

Natural Resource Skills-Tree Identification http://gaia.flemingc.on.ca/~dhendry/nrstrid.htm (1F)

Dendrology at Virginia Tech, Dept of Forestry.  Good maps, identification and quizzes for Canada and the US. http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/map/zonemap.htm (1F)

Penn State virtual forest www.virtualforest.psu.edu  (2F, 3F, 6F, 7F, 8F)

University of Arizona tree ring research.  Students can participate in tree ring exercises. http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/dendrochronology.html (3F)

Canadian Forest Service http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/cfs-scf/ (All)

Temperate Forest Foundation – Silviculture practices, management, and eco-links. http://www.forestinfo.org/ (All)

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association http://www.cppa.org/english/ (All)

Private Forest Management Team. This site includes many forest management areas including measuring, harvesting, growth, yield, pests and disease, wildlife, and many others. http://www.pfmt.org/default.htm (All)

 Auburn University- Instructions and care of the increment borer. http://www.pfmt.org/inventories/increment_borer.htm (6F)

 Tree measurement volume tables http://www.pfmt.org (6F)

 Canada measurement volume tables http://nfi.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/terms/procedures_e.html#volumespecs (6F)

 Virginia Dept of Forestry http://www.dof.state.va.us  (All)

 Idaho Forest Products Commission-Forest health and conditions, biodiversity, and management implications. http://www.idahoforests.org/health.htm (3F, 5F, 7F, 8F)

 Canada Forest Health http://www.atl.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca:8080/cfsnet/index-e.html (3F, 5F, 7F, 8F)

 Urban forestry www.americanforests.org/resources/urbanforests/  (9F)

 Forestry Extended Studies

Students should explain how forest landowners can create the habitat requirements needed for wildlife species.  (4F, 10F)

Students should recommend harvesting methods for even and uneven age stands.  They will list the benefits of shelterwood, seed tree, and clearcut methods. http://www.forestinfo.org/Discover/reforest.htm  (2F, 6F,7F)

 Students should list and diagram the different characteristics of the following forest types:  Savanna, open, dense, understory, and complex. http://www.idahoforests.org/health2a.htm  (2F, 5F, 7F8F)

 Students should map, label and define the 12 forest regions of Canada. http://www.canadianforestry.com/html/forest/forest_regions_e.html (2F, 3F, 5F, 7F, 8F)

 Additional Resources

Canada Natural Resources Forestry and Energy Fact Sheets http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/statistics/factsheet.htm

 Georgia Pacific Forestry Education in Nature http://www.gp.com/EducationalinNature/subjects.html

 Canada Renewable Energy Forestry http://www2.nrcan.gc.ca/es/oerd/english/view.asp?x=700&mid=33

 BLM National Energy Initiatives http://www.blm.gov/energy/

 New Brunswick Natural Resources Forestry and Energy http://www.gnb.ca/0079/index-e.asp

 U.S. Dept. of Energy http://www.eere.energy.gov/

 Measuring tree height with a Clinometer or Merrit Hypsometer:

To practice measuring tree height, go out 100 feet from the tree measuring with your loggers tape.  Using a clinometer, measure the angles to the top and bottom of the tree using the percent scale in the clinometer and add them together, if your eye is higher than the base of the tree to get the height of the tree.  If you are downhill from the tree and your eye is below the base of the tree, subtract the percentage reading to the base of the tree (the lower percentage) from the percentage reading to the top of the tree to get the height of the tree.

Clinometer Reading Method

Keep both eyes open when using a clinometer.  Use one eye to look through the lens at the scales while the other sights alongside the clinometer housing.  An optical illusion is created and the horizontal sighting line will appear to project to the side of the clinometer housing.  Place this sighting line on your target and read the scale.

Measuring Height with a Merritt Hypsometer

A Merritt Hypsometer is a simple tool that uses geometry to measure the number of 16 foot logs in standing trees. While not as accurate as special tools specifically designed for height measurement (clinometer), the Merritt Hypsometer is convenient to carry and use and accurate enough for many purposes.

  1. Pace or measure a distance of either 66 (for short trees) or 99 (for tall trees) feet from tree.
  2. Hold the stick 25 inches from your eye with the hypsometer side facing you and parallel to tree.
  3. Align the bottom of the stick (zero end) with bottom of the tree.
  4. WITHOUT MOVING YOUR HEAD, sight up the stick to the top of the tree.
  5. Read number of logs from scale where your line of sight and the top of the tree intersect.

NOTE: For short trees you go out a distance of 66 (one chain) feet from the tree being measured.  For taller trees you will need to go out 99 (1.5 chains) feet from the trees being measured.  Make sure you use the correct scale, as the hypsometer will have both scales side by side.

 Using the compass

To determine the direction your are facing point the Direction of Travel Arrow on the
compass in the direction you want to go, turn the compass housing or turntable so the floating compass needle is contained within the Orienting Arrow printed on the bottom of the compass housing making sure the pointed needle points to the North.  Then take your degree reading (or azimuth off the compass housing (0o to 360o) where the Direction of Travel Arrow intersects the compass housing.

Let’s use for example that you want to go northwest.  Find out where on the compass housing northwest is.  Then you turn the compass housing so that northwest on the housing comes exactly there where the large direction of travel-arrow meets the housing.

Hold the compass in your hand.  You will have to hold it quite flat, so that the compass needle can turn.  Turn yourself (your hand and the entire compass, just make sure the compass housing doesn’t turn independently) until the compass needle is aligned with the lines inside the compass housing.

Cruising Prism

Like an angle gauge, this optical device is used to tally trees in variable area plot sampling.  These prisms are also available in a range of basal area factors (BAF) to best fit the size of the trees you are sampling.  You select a BAF to give you 4 to 10 trees per sample plot but you must use the same BAF for the whole stand you are sampling.  The smaller the trees, the smaller the BAF to use.  Prisms are not used to tally dense sapling size regeneration as they do introduce a bias against smaller trees (few are selected to measure).

Variable plot sampling with a Cruising Prism

Use both a prism and an angle gauge to count the number of trees.  Record the BAF. Count three plots with each.  Average the three plots (record average to three decimal places) and multiply by the BAF to get the basal area per acre.  Viewing the tree bole at breast height (DBH = 4.5 feet above the ground) the tree is counted in the plot of the prism displaced bole touches the tree bole above or below the prism.  If the displaced image doesn’t touch the tree bole the tree is not counted in the plot.

Prisms:  It doesn’t matter how far you hold the prism from your eye.  However, as you rotate in a circle to sample the forest, the prism should remain over the same point.  Mark the center of the plot with a stake.

 Prisms must be held with the thick edge perpendicular to the ground.  The prism will offset an image of the tree trunk. If this offset image intersects with the actual trunk viewed outside the prism, the tree is counted.

 Trees where the offset image does not intersect the tree are ignored and borderline trees (offset image barely touches the tree) are counted as half a tree or you can count every other borderline tree.

Forestry Key Points

Identify common trees without a key and identify specific or unusual species of trees or shrubs through the use of a key.

2F        Understand forest ecology concepts and factors affecting them, including the relationship between soil and forest types, tree communities, regeneration, competition, and succession.

3F        Understand the cause and effect relationship of factors affecting tree growth and forest development (climate, insects, microorganisms, wildlife, etc.).

4 F       Understand how wildlife habitat relates to forest communities, forest species, forest age and structure, snags and den trees, availability of food, and riparian zones.

5F        Understand how the following issues are affected by forest health and management: biological diversity, forest fragmentation, air quality, aesthetics, fire, global warming, and recreation.

6F        Understand basic forest management concepts and tools (Clinometer, Diameter Tape, Logger’s Tape, Prism, and Merritt Hypsometer) such as how various silvicultural practices are utilized, the use of tree measuring devices, and the best use of management practices.

7F        Apply silviculutral concepts and methods to develop general management recommendations and goals for a particular situation.

8F        Identify the complex factors that influence forest management decisions (e.g., economic, social, and ecological).

9F        Understand the value of trees in urban/suburban settings and the factors affecting their health and survival.

10F      Describe specific adaptations of wildlife to their environment and their role in the ecosystem.

Suggested Core Activities/Test Material

Students should identify common trees and shrubs in their local area without a plant key, and identify specific or unusual species of trees and shrubs using a key.  Using plant  presses, students will collect samples, and create plant identification collections for future study. 1F

 Students sould conduct tree ring reaserch by using tree trunk slices to determine tree age, growing conditions, insect damage, and weather conditions. 3F

 Students should use a clinometer, increment borer, diameter tape, and  other forestry management tools to measure trees in their local area.  Using a variety of volume tables, the students will be able to calculate the volume of lumber for each tree. 6F

 Students should download the PDF file “Forest Health” from eco- links written by the Temperate Forest Foundation.  Team members can present their research on how the following issues are affected by forest health and management: biological diversity, forest fragmentation, air quality, aesthetics, fire, global warming, and recreation. 5F

 Using the Penn State “virtual forest tour” on their computer, students will understand how forest practices and policy affect sustainability.  Students will compare a mixed eastern hardwood forest in Pennsylvania to a douglas fir forest in Oregon. 2F. 3F, 6F, 7F, 8F 

 Students shoiuld create a presentation display showing the value of trees in an urban setting, and the factors affecting their health and survival. 9F

 Students should make a map of their local area forest or park, including wildlife inventories, tracks, habitat, food sources, and specific  wildlife adaptations. 4F, 10F

Top Resources

A complete glossary of forestry terms can be accessed at: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/documents/glossary/

Natural Resource Skills

 Tree Identification http://gaia.flemingc.on.ca/~dhendry/nrstrid.htm (1F)

 Dendrology at Virginia Tech, Dept of forestry.  Good maps, identification and quizzes for Canada and the US. http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/map/zonemap.htm (1F)

 Canadian Forestry Association http://www.canadianforestry.com/  (All)

 Penn State virtual forest http://www.virtualforest.psu.edu/  (2F 3F 6F 7F 8F)

 University of Arizona tree ring research.  Students can participate in tree ring exercises. http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/dendrochronology.html (3F)

 Canadian Forest Service http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/cfs-scf/ (All)

 Temperate Forest Foundation-Silviculture practices, management, and eco-links. http://www.forestinfo.org/ (All)

 Canadian Pulp and Paper Association http://www.cppa.org/english/ (All)

Private Forest Management Team. This site includes many forest management areas including measuring, harvesting, growth, yield, pests and disease, wildlife, and many others. http://www.pfmt.org/default.htm (All)

 Auburn University- Instructions and care of the increment borer. http://www.pfmt.org/inventories/increment_borer.htm (6F)

 Canada Sustainable Forest Association http://sfms.com/home.htm  (All)

 Tree measurement volume tables http://www.pfmt.org/ (6F)

 Canada measurement volume tables http://nfi.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/terms/procedures_e.html#volumespecs (6F)

 Idaho Forest Products Commission-Forest health and conditions, biodiversity, and management implications. http://www.idahoforests.org/health.htm (3F 5F 7F 8F)

 Canada Forest Health http://www.atl.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca:8080/cfsnet/index-e.html (3F 5F 7F 8F)

 Canada Wildlife http://www.ec.gc.ca/wild_e.html (3F 4F 10F)

 Urban forestry www.americanforests.org/resources/urbanforests/  (9F)

Forestry Extended Studies

Students should be able to recommend harvesting methods for even and uneven age stands.  They will list the benefits of shelterwood, seed tree, and clearcut methods. http://www.forestinfo.org/Discover/reforest.htm  (2F 6F 7F)

 Students should be able to list and diagram the different characteristics of the following forest types:  Savanna, open, dense, understory, and complex. http://www.idahoforests.org/health2a.htm  (2F 5F 7F 8F)

 Students should be able to map, label and define the major forest regions of California. www.springerlink.com/index/P5PT410483K44NP3.pdf  (2F 3F 5F 7F 8F)

On-line Sample Tests

The North American Envirothon web site contains sample tests for each of the Envirothon topics and a list of issues.  Many state and provincial Envirothon Web sites also contain sample tests. http://www.envirothon.org/competition/tests.php

http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_wright_envisci_8/0,8543,1052446-,00.html

Energy and Solid Waste

Students should create an educational display showing the benefits of forestry biomass resources for creating energy. The display will include pictures and descriptions of nine short rotation hardwood trees recommended for biomass use. http://www.eere.energy.gov/RE/biomass.html

 Students should discuss the effects of increased paper recycling on timber harvests in North America. http://www.yale.edu/pswp/#inceeffect

 Students should outline the importance of the forest products industries in Canada and the United States and make a graph comparing the net electricity use of the major manufacturing industries to the forest products industry. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/at_a_glance/wood/contents.htm

 Students should compare the energy efficiency between wood fuel and fossil fuel by analyzing the net energy output between oil burning stoves and wood burning stoves. http://www.energyadvocate.com/fw13.htm

 Wood fuel provides 7% of the world’s energy, but 77% of this energy is consumed by developing countries.  Students should make a chart showing the importance of wood energy in the world, and compare the energy uses of the United States and Canada to world use. http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/14011/en

Students should research the amounts of wood residue and solid waste wood that is available for recovery.  They will analyze the two main sources, forest residue and primary timber processing, and make a graph of their data. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/viewpub.jsp?index=7113

 Students should create a power point presentation comparing paper recycling facts in the United States, and Canada. http://www.paperrecycles.org/http://www.recycle.nrcan.gc.ca/background_e.htm

 Students should study the controversy over the forest management practices in the Wao Kele o Puna rain forest in Hawaii, where the drilling of geothermal wells for electricity production has been proposed.  The students will divide into two groups, and debate the issues. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1016/is_n7-8_v97/ai_11012471

 Students should create an educational display showing the reduced energy costs associated with trees planted for energy conservation in our cities. http://www.americanforests.org/graytogreen/energy/

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

Georgia Pacific Forestry Education in Nature http://www.gp.com/EducationalinNature/subjects.html

Canada Renewable Energy Forestry http://www2.nrcan.gc.ca/es/oerd/english/view.asp?x=700&mid=33

BLM National Energy Initiatives http://www.blm.gov/energy/

New Brunswick Natural Resources Forestry and Energy http://www.gnb.ca/0079/index-e.asp

U.S. Dept. of Energy http://www.eere.energy.gov/

Ecology at About.com http://ecology.about.com/science/ecology/

Forestry at About.com http://forestry.about.com/

Discovery.com Wildfires http://www.discovery.com/area/science/wildfires/

Silvics of North America http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm

Climate Information http://www.noaa.gov

 Basics of Tree ID

http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forsite/Idtree.htm
SelecTree California http://selectree.calpoly.edu/

CalPhotos – Plants http://dlp.CS.Berkeley.EDU/photos/flora/

Manual of California Vegetation http://www.ice.ucdavis.edu/cnps/site.html

California Native Plant Society http://www.cnps.org/programs/plantscience.htm

 Online Biology Book
http://gened.emc.maricopa.edu/bio/

bio181/BIOBK/BioBookTOC.html

 Tree Physiology

http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Environment/TreePhys.htm

 ICE Environmental Conservation Hotlinks
http://ice.ucdavis.edu/echo/

habitats_and_ecosystems.html#habitats

California Environmental Resources Evaluation System http://ceres.ca.gov/education/students/nat_sci.html

California Natural Resource Conservation Service Homepage http://www.ca.nrcs.usda.gov/

Agencies/Organizations

USDA Forest Service http://www.fs.fed.us/

USGS Biological Resource Division, National Biological Information Infrastructure http://biology.usgs.gov 

Sierra Nevada Science Report http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/other/sierra

Environmental Protect Agency Water Quality Programs http://www.epa.gov

US Fish and Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov

California Biodiversity Council http://www.ceres.ca.gov/biodiversity

California Department of Conservation Land Use Planning Information Network http://ceres.ca.gov

California Department of Fish and Game http://www.dfg.ca.gov/

California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection http://www.fire.ca.gov

Society of American Foresters http://www.safnet.org

 Insects and Diseases of Forest Trees

http://www.forestpests.org

http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/nr/fid/index/htm

http://www.bugwood.org/

http://www.forestpathology.org 

USDA Forest Service Western Forest Insects and Diseases http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/nr/fid/wid.htm

 Map Information
http://www.usgs.gov/
http://nationalatlas.gov/

 Federal Laws Related to the USDA Forest Service
http://www.healthyforests.gov/

http://www.epa.gov/epahome/laws.htm

 California Environmental Law Information

http://ceres.ca.gov/elaw  

 USDA Forest Service History Website
http://www.lib.duke.edu/forest/

Research/usfscoll/collections/

 Miscellaneous forestry sites

http://forestryindex.net/

http://www.worldforestry.org/

http://www.americanforests.org/

http://www.forestryimages.org/

 Urban Forestry

http://www.ufei.org/

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